The 36-year-old Australian had not raced since pulling out of the Dubai Tour in February.
"I'm grateful for my time as a professional cyclist. It's time to announce my retirement. Thank you cycling!" wrote Rogers on his official Twitter account.
A worsening heart condition has forced the Tinkoff rider to call time on his 16-year professional career.
"Recent cardiac examinations have identified occurrences of heart arrhythmia which have never been detected beforehand," added Rogers in an open letter.
"This latest diagnosis, added to the congenital heart condition I was diagnosed with in 2001, means that my competitive career must end.